The pigeon :
Pigeons belong to the pigeon family (Columbidae), birds that are widespread in most regions around the world, concentrated in South America, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Pigeons are cone-shaped birds, 15-75 cm long, weighing 30-2000 G.they have smooth skins, short legs, and small heads with beaks. She has an excellent ability to fly because her body contains 44% of the muscles that help her fly. Pigeons live singly or in groups that move as flocks, take the nests they build as homes, and rely on fruits and cereals for their diet.
The most important types of pigeons:
Pigeons are divided into large-sized species, which are called pigeons, and small pigeons, which are called doves. scientists have classified the types of pigeons into 5 subspecies, of which 42 models, and 308 species. Below are the main classifications of the bathroom.
The typical pigeon :
The typical pigeon (the Columbinae), a species also known as the Old World rock pigeon, belongs to this species about 175 species, and 30 genera. Most of the pigeons in this family belong to the mountain pigeon (Columba livia), and this species was domesticated and bred by humans 3000 years ago BC. It has gray, black, or brown plumage, and some have iridescent spots. This breed usually travels in groups, they are widespread in temperate and tropical regions, some feed on terrestrial cereals, and others feed on trees. One of the most important types of pigeons belonging to this breed is:
Dancing pigeons: a pigeon that has a fan-shaped tail, the number of feathers in its tail may reach 42 feathers.
Towel pigeons: (Jacobins Pigeons) there are feathers around the neck of this pigeon that give it an acrobatic look.
Carrier pigeons: carrier pigeons have long beaks.
Puffin pigeons: (Pouter Pigeons) are birds that have long legs, and swollen hips, and stand upright with a height of up to 16 inches.
The barbet pigeon: its origin dates back to the 17th century in England, and it is characterized by the presence of a ring of skin around its eyes and beak, which later develops into a ring resembling a flower.
Owl pigeons: this pigeon was called an owl because it has a very small beak, which gives the impression of the roundness of its head, which is similar to the shape of an Owl Bird. And the feathers around the neck of this species are sparse and far apart.
Acrobatic pigeons: (Tumblers Pigeons) this species has a large and wide head, but it is short, that is, the distance between the front of the head and its end is small.
Warped pigeons: (Frillbacks Pigeons) this pigeon is characterized by The Shape of feathers on the wings, they take a warped and curly shape.
Pheasant pigeons :
One of the oldest types of pigeons is the pheasant pigeon, which is a pigeon the size of a chicken, widespread in the Guiana region. One of the most important types of pheasant pigeons:
White doves: this bird is native to desert regions, it has orange eyes surrounded by shades of blue.
Mourning doves: (The Mourning Dove) this species has small heads and tails and has an agility that helps it fly straight and fast, and its wings emit a sharp whistle when taking off.
Terrestrial doves: these doves belong to a large group called Metriopelia, they were named terrestrial because they feed on terrestrial forage. These doves have soft plumage of a reddish-brown hue, they are small, the size of a Sparrow.
Quail doves: of medium and stocky size, the males of which have Chestnut plumage, the females have light brown plumage, both have a pale stripe under the eyes, and the feet are reddish in color.
Fruit pigeon :
Pigeons that feed on fruits are called fruit pigeons and their scientific name is the Treroninae, which are birds that have soft plumage in bright colors such as red and yellow, but predominantly green, and their legs are short. Among the most important types of them are Imperial full-fledged pigeons, small colorful pigeons, blue pigeons ( Alectroenas), dark blue pigeons with red custom, and green pigeons with Crimson feet (Treron).
Crowned pigeons :
There are three species of pigeons found in New Guinea that have joined together to form a species called the crowned pigeon (the Gourinae), and these species are the largest, about the size of a turkey, they are blue-gray and have a fan-like habit.
Tooth beak pigeon :
The tooth-billed pigeon belongs to the class (Didunculinae), which includes none other, it is a bird that feeds on fruit, and it was originally found in the Samoan region, and this bird has sharp beak-like teeth and uses it to peck food while using its feet to fix it.
Breeding pigeons :
The pigeon has economic importance as its meat is exploited for feeding, and it does not need effort in raising it because of its long flight, and it does not occupy much space in its dwellings. In order for pigeon breeding to be successful, the choice of a large-sized pigeon must be taken into account, and it should produce zagalil with a volume ranging from 700-800 G. when breeding pigeons, It is necessary to distinguish between two main types::
Wild pigeons: pigeons of small size, produce small chicks weighing no more than 500 g when they reach the month, and it spawns twice a year in spring and autumn. Wild pigeons have a long and thin black beak, their plumage has a blue or gray tint, and on their wings, there is a black stripe.
Domestic pigeons: these are the one that is used in breeding, including municipal species such as the Egyptian pigeon, and the Maltese pigeon, and foreign species such as the Balq pigeon, the reihani pigeon, the Carthaginian pigeon, and others. Pigeons feed mainly on cereals such as yellow corn, wheat, beans, cassava, and barley, and they eat food twice in the morning and evening in the amount of 60-70 g per day. As for the dwellings where pigeons can be raised, they may be wooden or metal cages relied on by amateur pigeon breeders, and houses with covered sheds are a set of cages arranged in houses attached to courtyards covered with a net with a height of 2 M, and an area of 10 square meters to accommodate a hundred pairs of pigeons. The third system of bathhouses is the tower system, which is built of clay or cement with a height of 2-3 M.it has a set of openings for ventilation.
The importance of the pigeon for Men:
Pigeons were anciently used for many humanitarian purposes, they exploited their ability to fly to quickly transmit messages between people because they have a set of neurons that help them determine their direction and altitude depending on the Earth’s magnetic fields. It was used to transmit messages, especially during periods of war, from ships to land, and it was also used to deliver messages to secret groups, as it formed a communication network between them without drawing attention. Nowadays, pigeons are bred for the use of their meat, and for recreational purposes such as Bird racing and exhibitions.