Introduction to insects :
Insects are animals belonging to the arthropod family (the proportion of any arthropod foot) invertebrates and the name (Insecta) is derived from the Latin (insect), which means the body is divided or cut into sections as it is its body divided into 3 parts, and it is widely found all over the globe.
These organisms make up more than half of the living organisms in the world, their species are numerous and there are more than a million species of insects currently known, the most important thing that distinguishes insects from other animals is that their numbers exceed all other animals, and they are distinguished from others by having 6 legs and a hard outer shell (exoskeleton), and most of them have wings.
Classification of insects :
These organisms belong to the animal kingdom, the family of arthropods (animals that have a dorsal cord during embryogenesis), and the class of hexapods.
The most prominent characteristics of insects :
The most important thing that distinguishes insects from other animals is the following:
- Insects have a divided body, as it is divided into 3 parts: the head, chest, and abdomen.
- It has legs that appear bilaterally symmetrical (that is, the right part is similar in number to the left part), and in each part, it has 3 legs. Her legs are attached to the middle section of the body.
- It has an external skeleton and lacks a spine, its structure consists of a hard, inflexible material, called chitin, and this structure provides protection for insects.
- Wings consisting of two layers have both main wings, and hidden wings, which are smaller in size than the main one.
- Possesses antennae.
- It has a pair of compound eyes.
- It has a variation in The Shape of the mouth, as the type of mouth in insects depends on its type.
- She owns a digestive and reproductive system (these parts are located precisely in the abdominal region).
- They reproduce by eggs, as almost all types of insects hatch from eggs, and fertilization occurs internally, with the exception of some species such as aphids and cockroaches.
- Their eggs are distinguished by a congenital design that is able to withstand all severe weather conditions, especially dry.
- Some insects have the property of biological illumination, as they are able to generate light for several purposes, including mating, or obtaining prey.
- Insects have a relatively short life cycle, except for Queens that have the task of ovulation, such as bee queens or ants, they live for long periods, up to decades.
Types of insects :
There are many types of insects according to their possession of wings, including the category of apterygota, which includes the category of insects that are believed to have never developed, and therefore are wingless, and do not have any clear transformation, and the category of pergota, and this category includes most insects, which have wings or possessed them at some stage of their development.
Pterodactyl insects go through a number of stages of transformation and are divided into 3 stages (egg, larva, and adulthood), in adulthood, these insects have wings, and this is what distinguishes them from ASP, and Pterodactyl insects are divided into two main parts; namely: exoptera insects, and endoptera insects.
Exoptera insects include the order diaphanoptera (praying mantis), Orthoptera (Locust), Lepidoptera (scissorfly) and Isoptera (termite). the Lepidoptera (aphids), Hemiptera (melon leaf bugs), and the order of trematodes (Azure trematode, red or scarlet trematode, Emerald trematode, blue-striped) are similar.
What insects are endoptera, they include the butterfly family, including the lettuce worm Butterfly, The Black Sword butterfly, the grape leaf worm butterfly, and others, and there are insects called Diptera, the most important species they represent: mosquitoes, the HOVERFLY, and the fruit fly.
These insects are primitive insects that do not have wings, are distributed all over the world, and are found in different environments, including soil, waste, and between leaves, of which there are 800 main species, varying in shape and color, most species are less than 0.3 cm long, some up to 1 cm, their bodies are rectangular or spherical with antennae.
Examples of wingless insects include the following:
- Lice include body lice and hair lice.
- The old needle or scissor owl is found wingless and if any is not used in flight and is very short.
- The Black Ant, except for the Queen, is wingless.
- The silverfish insect is distinguished by its silvery color, its abdomen consists of 11 rings.
- The jumping tail or banana jumper is found in agricultural areas under moist grasses.
What do insects feed on :
Insects are divided according to their diet into the following:
Herbivorous insects :
This category includes most insects, as they feed on plants (stems, leaves, seeds, and fruits), and one of the most famous species that feed on plants is caterpillars, as caterpillars (insects in the second phase of growth) need a large number of leaves until they reach adulthood, tobacco worm is one of the insects that also feed on plant leaves.
Some types of insects that feed on certain types of plants have chemical defense mechanisms that they use to reduce the competition of other insects for this type of food.
Deadly insects :
These insects feed mainly on ripe or decaying fruits, and the most important types of these insects are beetles, aphids, moths, flies, and Wasps, the fruits of these insects are an important source of carbohydrates and other important nutrients, these insects are pests that harm agricultural crops and gardens, hence it can be understood where their name came from that they are deadly.
Carnivorous insects :
They are insects that feed on other insects that feed on blood or that eat carrion, and the most famous examples of carnivorous insects are; dragonflies, praying mantes, insects that feed on blood; mosquitoes, and some types of flies, as there are about 200 species of insects that feed on meat.
Multiple food source insects :
There are some insects that rely on dung (animal feces) as a source of food along with other sources, and the most important types of insects that depend on this type of food are beetles, as they collect dung in the form of balls and store it for use when needed, and beetles can store 250 times their weight of dung per day.
Insect body structure :
The main structure of the body of insects consists of 3 main sections, which are as follows:
Head area :
The head area forms the anterior region in the insect, as it is located in the front of the two body parts, the head in insects contains antennae, eyes, and a mouth, and some insects have a tube-shaped mouth called a proboscis, which is intended for sucking liquids, others have biting mouths through which they eat plants, and some bite or pinch through the mouth to get blood.
Chest area :
This area, the middle zone of the insect, includes the wings and legs connected to the chest area so that on each side there are 3 legs, the legs on each side are separated from each other, and the chest also includes muscles that help in the process of movement.
Abdominal area :
This part of the body of insects contains vital organs, as there is a digestive system in it, it includes the intestines, and the stomach, which are important organs for absorbing nutrients from food, and important organs for separating waste, and there are also glands in this area of the body that are used to secrete pheromones through which the trace can be traced while collecting food or moving or a way to attract swarm members.
Ways of insect transportation :
Insects use a number of movements to move from one place to another, the most important of these movements are the following:
For walking and running :
Insects move from place to place by walking using feet, some insects have heavy bodies and therefore we find that they have 3 pairs of feet, which helps them to walk quickly, and provide proper support to the body while walking or running.
While moving with normal walking, the insect moves one leg for 5 stops in each movement, but at an average speed the insect moves two legs for 4 stops and in war situations, it moves 3 legs for 3 stops, and the movement is reciprocally at different speeds.
Some insects, especially in the larval stage, use their body and the peristaltic movements they can produce to move from one place to another, and this movement is similar to the movement of crawling, and examples of insects that use walking or running to move cockroaches.
Most winged insects use their wings to fly, as their physical configuration allows them to move from one place to another by flying, the wing of insects moves quite freely through the bottom and up through an angle of more than 120 degrees.
One of the most important features of insect wings during flight is that they flip from one position to another up or down, as a result of the presence of arthropods at the base of each wing with the body, and one of the most important types of insects that use their wings to move the bed.
Some insects use their feet as paddles for swimming or diving to move from one place to another, insects that use this movement to move their feet are characterized by having long and hard hair, which increases the efficiency of the process of movement and swimming in the water, and the most important insects that use this method of movement: columnar-winged beetles, midges, and flies.
Reproduction of insects :
Most insect species rely on internal fertilization in order to reproduce, as sperm are transmitted from male to female through a sac formed by male secretions, and in other cases, sperm is transmitted directly through the reproductive organs between insects.
After the fertilization process, insects lay eggs, which often consist of a waterproof outer shell, insects may lay their eggs in several places to preserve them from parasites or predation, and the most important places where insects may lay their eggs are bait, cracks in the ground, containers, or random cracks.
There are some insects that reproduce without the need for fertilization, such as aphids, and some insects do not lay eggs but give birth to larvae.
The benefits of insects :
Insects have many benefits for both humans and the environment, and one of the most important of these benefits is the following:
Insects preserve the environment by controlling some types of pests, as they depend on them as a source of food. Insects carry out pollination of plants and crops, providing a source of food for humans.
Insects rid the environment and Humans of some waste and waste, which reduces the percentage of diseases spread in the environment affecting humans.
Some chemicals extracted from insects are used in medicinal uses against a number of diseases, as bee venom is used to improve the symptoms of arthritis, gout, and tendonitis.
Some insects provide treatment and healing of wounds that affect humans through surgical worms.
Damage caused by insects :
There are many types of insects that cause damage to the environment and humans, and the most important of these damages are the following:
Insects are agricultural pests, as they threaten agricultural crops and dissipate them in some cases, the most important of these insects that are pests of crops are locusts, larvae, and grasshoppers, and some insects feed on the aqueous solution that is in the stem of the plant, which affects its growth.
Some insects cause damage to vegetation, especially in the event of changes in the climate in terms of increasing their activity and reproduction, for example, beetles caused damage to pine trees in North America due to the warming climate.
Insect bites cause damage ranging from small annoying to large fatal, examples of such insects are the fire ant and the African honey bee. Insects were the cause of the spread of malaria, and are still the most important example of this negative role played by insects.
Insects pose a threat to the wooden infrastructure of some homes, the most important of these insects are termites, bees, and wasps, as they use wood as an essential part of their diet.